WOHASU

Do not forget to participate to the World happiness Summit

March 20 has been established as the annual International Day of Happiness and all 193 United Nations member states have adopted a resolution calling for happiness to be given greater priority.

Measuring Happiness – The World Happiness Report –

Happiness – as defined by Wikipedia - is a mental or emotional state of well-being defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. Happy mental states may also reflect judgements by a person about their overall well-being. A variety of biologicalpsychologicaleconomicreligious and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources. Various research groups, including positive psychology and happiness economics are employing the scientific method to research questions about what "happiness" is, and how it might be attained.

The United Nations declared 20 March the International Day of Happiness to recognise the relevance of happiness and well-being as universal goals. In the fifth World Report expected to be published on March 20 2017, Happiness will be measured in the Report along 8 parameters (detail at the end of the article) and countries are ranked accordingly.

More and more Happiness is a reference for policy makers: The British prime minister, David Cameron, started in 2010 to measure his nation's happiness: “It's time we admitted that there's more to life than money, and it's time we focused not just on GDP, but on GWB - general well-being. Well-being can't be measured by money or traded in markets. It's about the beauty of our surroundings, the quality of our culture and, above all, the strength of our relationships. Improving our society's sense of well-being is, I believe, the central political challenge of our times.”

Higher GDP per Capita Higher Happiness – Money increases Happiness?

Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen, nineteen and six, result happiness.

Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure twenty pounds ought and six, result misery.

Wilkins Micawber in the Book "David Copperfield" by Charles Dickens

The first measure included in the Report is GDP per capita in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). It measures the impact that income has on Happiness. According to previous reports, people in countries with a GDP per capita of below $6,700 were 12% less likely to report the highest level of life satisfaction than those in countries with a GDP per capita of around $20,000. Countries with GDP per capita over $20,000 see a much less obvious link between GDP and happiness. Between this level and the very highest GDP per capita level ($54,000), the probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction changes by no more than 2%, and seems to be hump-shaped, with a bliss point at around $33,000. This corresponds broadly to the well-known Easterlin Paradox – that the link between life satisfaction and GDP is more or less flat in richer countries. (See notes on source of analysis)

Money increase Happiness, if you use it wisely – 5 rules

Buy moments, not stuff. According to Dan Gilbert, Harvard University psychology professor and author of Stumbling on Happiness, the key is to spend your money on experiences rather than material things. Material things, even if they’re expensive or you wanted them badly, tend to lose their luster after a while, literally and figuratively. Memories of people, places and activities, however, never get old. In a survey, Gilbert found that 57% of respondents reported greater happiness from an experiential purchase. Only 34% said the same about a material purchase.

Spend on others. In a study published this year, Harvard University researchers conducted experiments and found out that spending money on others (called “prosocial” spending in academic jargon) boosts people’s emotional and physical well-being.“The benefits of prosocial spending… extend not only to subjective well-being but objective health,” they write. Despite people’s intuitions and inclinations to the contrary, one of the best ways to get the biggest payoff personally from a windfall of $20 is to spend it prosocially."

Buy small splurges. Dropping a ton of cash on something extravagant doesn’t give you the same bang for your buck because, no matter how special it is at first, you get used to having it over time and it becomes just another object. “Giving yourself inexpensive indulgences is a clever way to gather up lots of bursts of happiness,” a recent Business Insider article suggests, citing Gilbert’s research.

Buy what you like. No keeping up with the Joneses — that’s not going to make you happy. “There are a lot of reasons someone might buy something… but if the reason is to maximize happiness, the best thing for that person to do is purchase a life experience that is in line with their personality,” Ryan Howell, an associate psychology professor San Francisco State University, tells Forbes. Howell recently co-authored a study finding that when people spend money just to project or uphold a certain image, it doesn't bring happiness.

Spend with others. You might think spending money on things or activities you do by yourself will make you happy, but a recent study in Psychological Science says that tactic can backfire. “To be extraordinary is to be different than other people, and social interaction is grounded in similarities,” says Gus Cooney , Harvard University research assistant and lead author of the study. Doing things with friends or family, even if it’s not as exciting, makes you happy because it fosters a sense of togetherness and connection between you and other people. “The guy who had the extraordinary experience had a harder time fitting in,” Cooney tells The Atlantic.

 

Companies contribute to increase GDP – Generate wealth and Money - Are they producing Happiness?

In simple terms, GDP per Capita - Gross domestic product (GDP) used in the measure of Happiness, is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period it is then divided by the inhabitants and adjusted by PPP.

In other words, it is the sum of the Revenues of all companies and individuals working in a certain country. So the more the company sell the higher should be Happiness.

I ran a small test asking to 4 managers belonging to different departments and industries, if the fact that their company was contributing to generate GDP was enough to state that their company was generating Happiness for its employees:

“No, Marco, there is no happiness at work, - Richard, a young production manager says - “I take care about my personal happiness following the advices of Action For Happiness: I do things for others, I connect with people, I take care of my body and mind health, I keep learning new things, I am resilient and know my direction. I accept myself, feel part of something bigger and look for what is good. With my dears, my family I feel happy. But the in the company we have always to change the goalpost of what success looks like: we launch a product successfully that becomes the base for the next one to be even better; profitability is improved, then we have to apply “continuous improvement’ methodologies; you have done a good job, now you have to do a better one; you hit your sales target, we're going to change it. And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, your brain never gets there. We've pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon, as a society. And that's because we think we have to be successful, then we'll be happier” Company puts too much pressure on success.

Laura, from Marketing, sees it differently: “A company is an ideal place where to grow and nurture happiness: when a group of people is together to pursue a common goal, if they share emotions and align their individual way of finding their personal purpose in life and how it fits to the company purpose of the company one works for. You may know that we launched a program almost 2 years ago where we helped people to find/or define clearer their personal purpose. The feedback I got about the program and how I saw the people coming out of the program was exciting. I also think it has a lot to do with how one can grow every day and how much you are supported in that. Balance is also important. The more you are balanced with a work you like and your private life, it helps to be happy. I personally think appreciation for what you do is very important. And it does not need a lot. And we should not forget…the more employees are happy…the more they are engaged….and the more we succeed with our customers!!!

“I believe that happiness is mainly depending from our personal outlook on life at work, rather than from what outside circumstances can bring us every day, add Frank of the Finance department. So for me happiness at work relies mostly on:

- Setting the right expectations (that does not prevent from being ambitious and aim for excellence and success).

- Appreciate the flow of personal relations and challenges happening every day: the 1:1 and team meetings, the several exchanges of opinions, the decision-making moments, the lunches (we should never skip lunch or have lunch alone), the coffee breaks (you know how I loved my former company's cafeteria...): in a nutshell, appreciate the beauty of connections and always be "in the moment".

- Stay balanced, aware of who we are and always keep our personal and professional values as a compass, particularly when the going gets tough and the pressure (for deadlines, performance, financial results, etc.) mounts high.

I also believe that being happy is the secret for being successful in the true sense, best represented by the words of poet Maya Angelou: “success is liking who you are, liking what you do and liking how you do it”.

“It would be great to apply the logic of the World Report and define a set of measures for Happiness ranking or rating within a company - Annette from HR Business partner team says - I saw in a recent article by Jacob Morgan author of “The Employee Experience Advantage” on HBR that “investing in Happiness” gives high returns: it had led not only to happier employees but also to larger talent pipelines and greater profitability and productivity. Morgan in addition found that, for instance, compared with the other companies he studied, those that invested most heavily in employee experience were included 28 times as often among Fast Company’s Most Innovative Companies, 11.5 times as often in Glassdoor’s Best Places to Work, 2.1 times as often in Forbes’s list of the World’s Most Innovative Companies, 4.4 times as often in LinkedIn’s list of North America’s Most In-Demand Employers, and twice as often in the American Customer Satisfaction Index”.

You get what you measure – Proposing Measure of Happiness in the Company

The purpose of my recent articles on LinkedIn is to increase awareness about how Finance can contribute to a better Society. I increased my interest on Happiness while I was reflecting on how Finance can help Society to be a better place to live and TheHappyCFO’s articles on LinkedIn shared my thoughts. The inspiration of my articles has been Shiller’s book “Finance and the Good Society” where he writes: “What I want most for my students – near and far, young and old – to know is that finance truly has the potential to offer hope for a more fair and just world, and that their energy and intelligence are needed to help serve this goal.”

Can Finance make it “Fair, just and happier?”

 Measuring Happiness not only at Country and Society as the World report does but at a Company level could contribute to monitor more frequently this key variable for individual and companies well being.

You will find more in one of the next The Happy CFO articles.

 

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a) How Happiness is measured in the World report

1. GDP per capita is in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) measures the impact that income has on Happiness.

2. The time series of healthy life expectancy at birth measure the important element of physical health while the aspect of mental health should then be measured in addition, suggests Lord Layard.

3. Social support (or having someone to count on in times of trouble) Today only 30% of people in UK and US think that most of the people can be trusted.

4. Freedom to make life choices is a powerful motivator of internal wellness

5. Generosity – “Have you donated money to a charity in the past month?” on GDP per capita.

6. Perceptions of corruption

7. Positive affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for happiness,

laughter and enjoyment

8. Negative affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for worry, sadness

and anger

 

b) GDP and life satisfaction: New evidence Eugenio Proto, Aldo Rustichini 11 January 2014

The link between higher national income and higher national life satisfaction is critical to economic policymaking. This column presents new evidence that the connection is hump-shaped. There is a clear, positive relation in the poorer nations and regions, but it flattens out at around $30,000–$35,000, and then turns negative. 

c) Money Can Buy Happiness, Study Finds Kerry Close Apr 07, 2016

 

The Art of Measuring Happiness

The subject of centuries of scrutiny and debate: how to measure happiness solved by the genius of Leonardo. He wasn’t able to measure it but he. …painted it. Stare at Mona Lisa and mirror yourself into Happiness

Happy people recognized Mona Lisa Happy smile

According to an article by Relax news on Luxuo.com on Mar 19th 2017, the most famous painting by Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa ‘s famous smile, routinely described as ambiguous, has been decoded by Researchers: Mona Lisa’s smile means “HAPPY”.The article refers that: “According to an unusual trial, close to 100 per cent of people described her expression as unequivocally “happy“, researchers revealed. “We really were astonished, neuroscientist Jürgen Kornmeier of the University of Freiburg, who co-authored the study, told AFP.”

Happiness – as defined by Wikipedia - is a mental or emotional state of well being defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. Various research groups, including positive psychology and happiness economics are employing the scientific method to research questions about what "happiness" is, and how it might be attained and measured.

The way to measure it generated a lot of debate due to its subjective components, OECD has even issued in 2013 Guidelines that “mark an important turning point in our knowledge of how subjective wellbeing (happiness) can, and should, be measured. Not long ago, the received wisdom was that “we don’t know enough” about subjective well being to build it into measures of societal progress. However, as the evidence documented in these Guidelines shows, we in fact know a lot – perhaps more than we realised until we gathered all the relevant material for this report – and in particular that measures of subjective well-being are capable of capturing valid and meaningful information. (..) Subjective well-being data can provide an important complement to other indicators already used for monitoring and benchmarking countries performance, for guiding people’s choices, and for designing and delivering policies. Measures of subjective well being show meaningful associations with a range of life circumstances, including the other dimensions of well being explored in the Better Life Initiative. However, because a variety of factors affect how people experience and report on their lives, including factors such as psychological resilience in the face of adversity, and potential cultural and linguistic influences that are not currently well-understood, subjective well-being can only tell part of a person’s story”

Let’s go back to Leonardo, despite being unaware of this complexity, he was able to paint Happiness in Mona Lisa smile so when we stare at Mona Lisa we perceive what well being (Happiness) is.The article explains “Kornmeier and a team used what is arguably the most famous art piece in the world in a study of factors that influence how humans judge visual cues such as facial expressions. Mona Lisa is often held up as a symbol of emotional enigma. The portrait appears to many to be smiling sweetly at first, only to adopt a mocking sneer or sad stare the longer you look. Using a black and white copy of the early 16th century masterpiece, a team manipulated the model’s mouth corners slightly up and down to create eight altered images — four marginally but progressively “happier” and four “sadder” Mona Lisa’s. A block of nine images was shown to 12 trial participants 30 times. In every showing, for which the pictures were randomly reshuffled, participants had to describe each of the nine images as happy or sad.The findings confirm that “we do not have an absolute fixed scale of happiness and sadness in our brain” and that a lot depends on context, the researcher explained. “Our brain manages to very, very quickly scan the field. We notice the total range, and then we adapt our estimates” using our memory of previous sensory experiences, he said.Another interesting discovery was that people were quicker to identify happier Mona Lisas than sad ones. This suggested “there may be a slight preference …in human beings for happiness” said Kornmeier.

 

How Happiness is measured at Country level

While the brain can hardly recognize and quantify someone else’s happiness, socio economists try to measure it every year, gathering different data to be shared in the annual report that aims to measure the level of Happiness for almost 200 countries. They utilize 8 criteria -objectives and subjectives-: The first one, most commonly utilized in many economic measures is GDP per capita - adjusted in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) - measures the impact that income has on Happiness. Based on past analysis, Income variation contributes to 2% of total Happiness variation across countries. Above a certain threshold of Income per capita (above 35/40K$) happiness does not grow linearly.  The time series of healthy life expectancy at birth measure the important element of physical health. A third element is Social support (or having someone to count on in times of trouble), then Freedom to make life choices is a powerful motivator of internal wellness, Generosity – “Have you donated money to a charity in the past month?” on GDP per capita. Finally Perceptions of corruption reduce Happiness status. Positive affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for happiness, laughter and enjoyment and Negative affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for worry, sadness and anger.

In the 2017 Report, all of the top four countries rank highly on all the main factors found to support happiness: caring, freedom, generosity, honesty, health, income and good governance. Their averages are so close that small changes can re-order the rankings from year to year. Norway moves to the top of the ranking despite weaker oil prices hitting GDP. It is sometimes said that Norway achieves and maintains its high happiness not because of its oil wealth, but in spite of it. By choosing to produce its oil slowly, and investing the proceeds for the future rather than spending them in the present, Norway has insulated itself from the boom and bust cycle of many other resource-rich economies. To do this successfully requires high levels of mutual trust, shared purpose, generosity and good governance, all factors that help to keep Norway and other top countries where they are in the happiness rankings. All of the other countries in the top ten also have high values in all six of the key variables used to explain happiness differences among countries and through time—income, healthy life expectancy, having someone to count on in times of trouble, generosity, freedom and trust, with the latter measured by the absence of corruption in business and government.

Measuring Happiness when listening the web

A company,  believes that the subjective method to measure Happiness is the most reliable and “reading people’s feelings via listening to their messages on Twitter is better then asking them if they feel Happy” as done in the Happiness Report. They propose a quicker methodology to measure in real time the level of Happiness in a certain area. It is based on  iSA (integrated sentiment analysis), a novel algorithm designed for social networks and Web 2.0 sphere (Twitter, blogs, etc.) opinion analysis, i.e. developed for the digital environments characterized by abundance of noise compared to the amount of information. Instead of performing an individual classification and then aggregate the predicted values, iSA directly estimates the aggregated distribution of opinions. Through empirical analysis it was demonstrated that iSA outperforms machine-learning techniques of individual classification (e.g. SVM, Random Forests, etc.) as well as the only other alternative for aggregated sentiment analysis known as ReadMe.

Voices routinely produces based on the algorithm daily statistics about the level of Happiness in Italian cities, showing trends, normal distribution. I checked its validity, too: when Pope Francisco visited Milan last week all indicators on Twitter were on HAPPY!

What Happiness is not: Misery

As it is difficult to measure Happiness, the Economist in a recently published study, referring and leveraging the annual publication of the World Happiness report,  tries to unpick what make people happy and sad. It is not easy according to it to measure happiness but we know what make people sad: Mental illness, Unemployment, Poverty, Being without a partner, Being uneducated or physical ill. Some of it can be measured and in the article various rankings and comparisons are made.

 

Can Artificial Intelligence measure Happiness?

In an interesting very recent podcast HR Happy Hour 279 - Artificial Intelligence for HR and for People  (Listen HERE) Steve Boese and special guest co-host Madeline Laurano recorded a special Happy Hour Show live from Ultimate Connections 2017 in Las Vegas. They were joined by Ultimate Software's Cecile Alper-Leroux and Armen Berjikly to talk about the need to listen to the  'Voice of the Employee', the importance of technology to help HR leaders understand data, (especially unstructured data), and how modern technology solutions can help HR leaders move from just listening, to understanding, and finally, to taking actions, (and recommending actions). With a similar logic of Voices, they feel that getting data via AI is better then simply asking people how they feel.

The theme for the Ultimate Connections Conference was 'Elevate' - and the key idea to how HR and business leaders can elevate the employee experience by listening to their needs more closely, applying new technologies that can help analyze data from employee surveys and other disparate sources for things like sentiment and tone, and finally using those insights to take actions that can improve the organization and the individual employee experience. Technology can help measure in real time Happiness levels.

An ambitious European Union Project can help to gather data on Company Happiness (well being)

The European Union has approved a Directive on disclosure of non-financial and diversity information (2014/95/EU) entered into force in December 2014. This ambitious legislation requires around 6,000 large companies listed on EU markets, or operating in the banking and insurance sectors, to disclose relevant environmental and social information in the management report, with the first reports to be published in 2018 (on financial year 2017).

The Directive requires the Commission to prepare non-binding guidelines to be published as soon as possible in the spring 2017.

Financial and non-financial reporting provides shareholders and other stakeholders with a meaningful, comprehensive view of the position and performance of companies.

Large public-interest entities (listed companies, banks, insurance undertakings and other companies that are so designated by Member States) with more than 500 employees should disclose in their management report relevant and useful information on their policies, main risks and outcomes relating to at least environmental matters, social and employee aspects, respect for human rights, anticorruption and bribery issues, and diversity in their board of directors.

There is significant flexibility for companies to disclose relevant information (including reporting in a separate report), as well as they may rely on international, European or national guidelines (e.g. the UN Global Compact, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, ISO 26000, etc.).

How Finance can contribute to measure?

The purpose of my recent articles on LinkedIn is to increase awareness about how Finance can contribute to a betterSociety, taking inspiration from Robert J. Shiller:  “Finance truly has the potential to offer hope for a more fair and just - and Happy, I add, - world”

 Companies are a team or group of individuals with a common goal. The level of Happiness of that team is influenced by how “hard measurable objectives” are achieved and how is the culture/spirit of the team. The Objective and Subjective elements contribute to the level of Happiness, even though it is not defined in this way. Normally companies refer to a so-called “level of engagement” that is a proxy of Happiness. So Companies are not far from being able to measure how much people are Happy to work there and being part of a wider Society, a Company could also try to measure how it contribute to the overall Happiness. The EU Directive it is an important incentive to do so.

In the next article I will share how companies are preparing to measure their impact and how much they are willing to embark in measuring Happiness.

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What is the International Day of Happiness?

What is the International Day of Happiness?

It’s a day to be happy, of course! Since 2013, the United Nations has celebrated the International Day of Happiness as a way to recognise the importance of happiness in the lives of people around the world: “The General Assembly, (..) conscious that the pursuit of happiness is a fundamental human goal, recognizing the relevance of happiness and well-being as universal goals and aspirations in the lives of human beings around the world and the importance of their recognition in public policy objectives, recognizing also the need for a more inclusive, equitable and balanced approach to economic growth that promotes sustainable development, poverty eradication, happiness and the well-being of all peoples, decides to proclaim 20 March the International Day of Happiness.

Action for Happiness sustain the UN goal 

Lord Richard Layard founder of Action for Happiness sustains that: “ We all want to live happy and fulfilling lives and we want the people we love to be happy too. So happiness matters to all of us. Happiness is about our lives as a whole: it includes the fluctuating feelings we experience everyday but also our overall satisfaction with life. It is influenced by our genes, upbringing and our external circumstances - such as our health, our work and our financial situation. But crucially it is also heavily influenced by our choices - our inner attitudes, how we approach our relationships, our personal values and our sense of purpose”. “

“In the last 50 years, while Economic growth has been very important, Happiness has been flat so if we agree – he continues - that for all human beings it is important that they experience happiness and escape misery, then it follows that the best society is the one in which there is the least misery and the most happiness. On this basis, everyone's happiness counts equally. This includes the happiness of everybody now alive as well as that of future generations. So it is important that we act in a way that takes the happiness of all into consideration. If we can agree on this then we're one step closer to achieving a happier society”. 

Investing in Happiness

I found this movement while I was reflecting on how Finance can help Society to be a better place to live and TheHappyCFO’s articles on LinkedIn shared my thoughts. The inspiration of my articles has been Shiller’s book “Finance and the Good Society” where he writes: “What I want most for my students – near and far, young and old – to know is that finance truly has the potential to offer hope for a more fair and just world, and that their energy and intelligence are needed to help serve this goal.”

Can Finance make it “Fair, just and happier?” 

In almost all profit and non profit, large and small, successful and unsuccessful organization people cooperate and share information under a defined power structure where usually there is a leader that stands for the idea – the core idea behind the company’s activities, a way of thinking that defines the work of all company’s employees and a culture that includes its corporate values connecting the company to the larger society. I will focus my article on profit organizations where the leader is Chief Executive Officer (CEO).  A great part of the World working population operates in mid to large profit organizations and the CEOs and their power structure can influence importantly their level of Happiness as measured in the 8 KPIs of the Happiness Report. (Increasing GDP/ company outcome, keeping a correct boss to employee relation, helping people in trouble through charity and donations or special aid programs, create a culture of freedom, at work, a climate of trust, happiness and enjoyment – see notes for more details)

The CFO of any of those organizations, through constant financial resource optimization, can contribute that those goals are pursued via measuring and setting a system that includes measures of Happiness. 

You get what you measure: include Happiness in Financial reports 

Jacob Morgan author of “The Employee Experience Advantage” in a very recent article on HBR reports that “investing in Happiness” gives high returns. After interviewing more than 150 leaders around the world, he identified three environments that matter most to employees: cultural, technological, physical. Next, he developed survey questions to determine how organizations are faring in each area.

 When he interviewed business leaders at the top-scoring organizations, they told him that their investments in the three employee experience environments had led not only to happier employees but also to larger talent pipelines and greater profitability and productivity. Morgan in addition found that, for instance, compared with the other companies he studied, those that invested most heavily in employee experience were included 28 times as often among Fast Company’s Most Innovative Companies, 11.5 times as often in Glassdoor’s Best Places to Work, 2.1 times as often in Forbes’s list of the World’s Most Innovative Companies, 4.4 times as often in LinkedIn’s list of North America’s Most In-Demand Employers, and twice as often in the American Customer Satisfaction Index. Some of the most compelling evidence lay in the financial data: Compared with other companies, the experiential organizations had more than four times the average profit and more than two times the average revenue. They were also almost 25% smaller, which suggests higher levels of productivity and innovation. 

Ultimately then the CFO certifies the outcome of the unit, reassure the CEO that the unit is in the right trajectory and then measure Happiness as an outcome of their effort.

When the objectives are reached, it means that the unit the CFO works for is in line with its broader scope. Then embedded in a broader scope, when numbers turn in the right direction, the CFO feels his or her role accomplished. The whole Society benefits for proper use of money. Happiness comes. 

 

The Happy CFO preparing for the International Day of Happiness 

Yearly the World Happiness Report is published on March 20th, the International Day of Happiness. It will rank more than 180 countries by their happiness levels. The widespread interest in the World Happiness Reports, of which the 2017 one will be the fifth, reflects growing global interest in using happiness and subjective well being as primary indicators of the quality of human development. Because of this growing interest, many governments, communities and organizations are using happiness data, and the results of subjective well-being research, to enable policies that support better lives.

The KPIs measured to define Happiness status in one country are listed at the end of the article with some comments taken from a speech on Sept 23rd 2014 by Lord Richard Layard

 

Stay tune with TheHappyCFO if you want to know more about World Happiness Status

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How Happiness is measured in the Report

1. GDP per capita is in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) measures the impact that income has on Happiness. Based on past analysis, Income variation contributes to 2% of total Happiness variation across countries.

2. The time series of healthy life expectancy at birth measure the important element of physical health while the aspect of mental health should then be measured in addition, suggests Lord Layard.

3. Social support (or having someone to count on in times of trouble) Today only 30% of people in US and UK think that most of the people can be trusted.

4. Freedom to make life choices is a powerful motivator of internal wellness

5. Generosity – “Have you donated money to a charity in the past month?” on GDP per capita.

6. Perceptions of corruption

7. Positive affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for happiness,laughter and enjoyment

8. Negative affect is defined as the average of previous-day affect measures for worry, sadness and anger

 

ACTION FOR HAPPINESS FOUNDER

Happy Links

UN Official International Day of Happiness March 20

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World Happiness Report

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Action for Happiness

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World Happiness Summit Miami 2017